Sunday, January 24, 2021

Import an existing database and APEX app into the Oracle APEX Application Development Service

This post is part of the series My spin on the new Oracle APEX Application Development Service

In the previous post, we set up the environment which provided us everything to start building Oracle APEX apps. In this post, I want to take the Oracle APEX apps I've built before and move them to this new service.

There are different ways of accomplishing this. Here are the steps I will follow:
  1. In the current environment
    1. Export the database (schema)
    2. Export the APEX app
  2. On the new Oracle APEX Application Development Service
    1. Import the database (schema)
    2. Import/Deploy the APEX app
I will start by moving a very small app I built a few years ago; the reservation of meeting rooms we use in the Innovation and Incubation center in which our office is located.

In our current environment, we will export the data and the APEX app as explained below.

Export the database schema

There are different ways to get your data: export to flat files, make your data available through REST web services or use some other tools to move data. We export all our apps every night to a different location with Oracle Data Pump. In case you are new to Data Pump, here's the command you can use to export a specific schema:

expdp apex_backup/xxx@apex_pdb directory=DATAPUMP dumpfile=db_20210121_ini.dmp logfile=db_20210121_ini.log schemas=INI exclude=statistics

or export the entire database:

expdp apex_backup/xxx@apex_pdb directory=DATAPUMP dumpfile=db_20210121_full.dmp logfile=db_20210121_full.log full=y exclude=statistics 

I like to use Data Pump as it will export everything in one .dmp file and it's really fast to do.

Export the APEX application

There are different ways to export the APEX app. You can export through the GUI in Oracle APEX, use the external APEX Export tool, or use SQLcl.

Just like with the data, we also export all APEX workspaces and applications every night. We use the APEX Export tool. This is especially useful if you want to move your entire environment to the cloud as you don't have to export workspaces and apps one by one.

The command to export all workspaces:

/usr/bin/java oracle.apex.APEXExport -db localhost:1521/APEX_PDB -user apex_backup -password xxx -expWorkspace > workspaces.txt

The command to export all applications:

/usr/bin/java oracle.apex.APEXExport -db localhost:1521/APEX_PDB -user apex_backup -password xxx -instance > applications.txt

Now that we have the database data pump file (.dmp) and the APEX export file (.sql), we are ready to go to the new APEX Application Development Service to import the database and Oracle APEX app.

Import the database schema

The first thing we will do is import the database into the new service.

Log in to the Oracle Cloud and go to the APEX Application Development > APEX Instances.
From there click on the database link:

Here you arrive in the database. There's a DB Connection button:

Here you normally can download the connection details (credentials/wallet) to your database, which would mean we could follow the same technique as I described in my blog series on the Always Free Oracle Cloud, more specifically on how to use SQLcl and Data Pump with the Oracle ATP. Although this Oracle APEX Service is based on the same technology as the Always Free ATP, there are some limitations, one is, you can't connect directly to the database from external tools e.g. SQLcl. 

I thought as a workaround I would upgrade the service, import the data and downgrade again, but it seems that is not going to fly. Once you upgrade it's irrevocable.

Luckily there's another way to load our data, we can use the Oracle Data Pump API from PL/SQL.

First, we will make the dump file available to the Data Pump API. The database in the Oracle Cloud can not read a file from your filesystem directly, so you have to make the file available so the database can read it. In the Oracle Cloud, we can use Object Storage to store our dump file. In my blog post Setup Object Storage and use for File Share and Backups, you find step-by-step instructions both to upload through the GUI as from the command line.

As this is a very small database, I will just use the GUI. For anything that is less than 500MB you can most likely use the OCI Console, but for large data pumps the GUI will time out. In case your dump file is bigger, use the OCI REST API or CLI, or SDK.

Go to Object Storage :

Create a Bucket:

I call it db_import:

Click on the new bucket, db_import:

In the bucket, click the Upload button:

Drag-drop the files you want to upload. In my case I will just upload one file db_20210119_ini.dmp:

The uploaded files will appear in the bucket under Objects:

Make sure to copy the URL of the dump file. In order to do so, click the three dots next to the file and click View Object Details

And copy the URL Path (URI):

Now that the file is available, let's create the database (schema).

First, I typically create the user with a script:

create user ini identified by Thisisrealsecure123;
grant connect to ini;
grant create job to ini;
grant create dimension to ini;
grant create indextype to ini;
grant create operator to ini;
grant create type to ini;
grant create materialized view to ini;
grant create trigger to ini;
grant create procedure to ini;
grant create sequence to ini;
grant create view to ini;
grant create synonym to ini;
grant create cluster to ini;
grant create table to ini;
grant create session to ini;
grant execute on ctxsys.ctx_ddl to ini;
grant execute on dbms_crypto to ini;
alter user ini quota unlimited on data;

On the APEX Service dashboard, click the Launch SQL Developer Web, log in and copy and run the above script:

Next, import the data pump file which we stored earlier in Object Storage.

In order to connect to Object Storage from SQL Dev Web we need some Cloud Credentials. Just like in the first post where we created the SMTP credentials, we will now go to that screen to create some Auth Credentials.

Go to Identity > Users and select your user and click the Auth Tokens:

Click the Generate Token button, give it a name and click the Generate Token button:

Copy the created token and hit the close button:

Note that if you lost your token, you can create  another token from this screen (and delete the old one):

Go back to SQL Developer Web and create the credentials. This will allow us to connect to other cloud services like the Object Storage:

    credential_name => 'YourName',
    username => 'YourUser',
    password => 'YourPassword');

In my case it looks like this:

Now we load the file from our Object Storage into the DATA_PUMP_DIR directory where Data Pump can find the dump file to finally do the import. We use the DBMS_CLOUD package. Use the credentials you created before, use the URL you copied and the directory name should be DATA_PUMP_DIR

     credential_name => 'dgielis',
     object_uri => '',
     directory_name => 'DATA_PUMP_DIR'); 

I took a screenshot of some more commands I used to check my environment:
  • The first command to check I had credentials (dba_credentials)
  • The second to query the Object Storage bucket
  • The third to put the object from the Object Storage onto the database machine
  • The fourth command to make sure the dump file was in the directory

Ok - now we can start our Data Pump import by using the DBMS_DATAPUMP API.

  ind NUMBER;              -- Loop index
  h1 NUMBER;               -- Data Pump job handle
  percent_done NUMBER;     -- Percentage of job complete
  job_state VARCHAR2(30);  -- To keep track of job state
  le ku$_LogEntry;         -- For WIP and error messages
  js ku$_JobStatus;        -- The job status from get_status
  jd ku$_JobDesc;          -- The job description from get_status
  sts ku$_Status;          -- The status object returned by get_status
  -- Create a Data Pump job to do a "full" import (everything in the dump file without filtering).
  -- Add the file to the job handler

  -- As on the previous system the tablespace was different, I remap the tablespace 

  -- In case you migrate from a legacy Schema Service, in addition, to remap the 
  -- tablespace, you may also want to remap the schema to a more user-friendly name 

  -- Start the job. An exception is returned if something is not set up properly.

  -- The import job should now be running. In the following loop, the job is 
  -- monitored until it completes. In the meantime, progress information is displayed. 
  percent_done := 0;
  job_state := 'UNDEFINED';
  while (job_state != 'COMPLETED') and (job_state != 'STOPPED') 
            dbms_datapump.ku$_status_job_error +
            dbms_datapump.ku$_status_job_status +
    js := sts.job_status;

    -- If the percentage done changed, display the new value.
    if js.percent_done != percent_done
      dbms_output.put_line('*** Job percent done = ' || to_char(js.percent_done));
      percent_done := js.percent_done;
    end if;

    -- If any work-in-progress (WIP) or Error messages were received for the job, display them.
    if (bitand(sts.mask,dbms_datapump.ku$_status_wip) != 0)
      le := sts.wip;
      if (bitand(sts.mask,dbms_datapump.ku$_status_job_error) != 0)
        le := sts.error;
        le := null;
      end if;
    end if;
    if le is not null
      ind := le.FIRST;
      while ind is not null loop
        ind := le.NEXT(ind);
      end loop;
    end if;
  end loop;

  -- Indicate that the job finished and gracefully detach from it. 
  dbms_output.put_line('Job has completed');
  dbms_output.put_line('Final job state = ' || job_state);

And here's the result, everything nicely imported:

I switch users and see the tables, and querying the data of a table gives me the data:

Pretty neat 😃

When executing the import script in SQL Developer Web (SDW), for large imports, it is possible you will be timed out of SDW before the import job finishes. To monitor the status of the job, you can open another SDW instance and monitor the job. 

  ind NUMBER;              -- Loop index
  h1 NUMBER;               -- Data Pump job handle
  percent_done NUMBER;     -- Percentage of job complete
  job_state VARCHAR2(30);  -- To keep track of job state
  le ku$_LogEntry;         -- For WIP and error messages
  js ku$_JobStatus;        -- The job status from get_status
  jd ku$_JobDesc;          -- The job description from get_status
  sts ku$_Status;          -- The status object returned by get_status
  -- Attach to the Data Pump job

  -- Get the Job Status
            dbms_datapump.ku$_status_job_error +
            dbms_datapump.ku$_status_job_status +
  js := sts.job_status;

  -- check percent done and output to console
  percent_done := js.percent_done;
  dbms_output.put_line('*** Job percent done = ' || to_char(percent_done));

  -- Detach

In case the status is going bananas, here's a short script you can execute to kill the job if needed. 

  ind NUMBER;              -- Loop index
  h1 NUMBER;               -- Data Pump job handle
  percent_done NUMBER;     -- Percentage of job complete
  job_state VARCHAR2(30);  -- To keep track of job state
  le ku$_LogEntry;         -- For WIP and error messages
  js ku$_JobStatus;        -- The job status from get_status
  jd ku$_JobDesc;          -- The job description from get_status
  sts ku$_Status;          -- The status object returned by get_status
  -- Attach to the Data Pump job

  -- Stop the job
  dbms_datapump.stop_job(h1, 1);

  -- Detach

Credit to Todd Bottger (update on 30-APR-2021):
-- //start
There are two different ways to get the actual import job done in PL/SQL. Each has tradeoffs. 
1) Use of DBMS_CLOUD.GET_OBJECT followed by DBMS_DATAPUMP import from the local file as described above:  this approach probably will be the fastest one for large data sets. 
The downsides are slightly more complex script (more lines of script) and it consumes extra storage space due to GET_OBJECT making a full local copy first. Note that customers pay for this storage space as part of their storage bill. Of course, the price per TB in APEX Service is quite low, so perhaps it will not be a big concern for most folks.

2) Alternative approach using DBMS_DATAPUMP *only*. 
Note that DBMS_DATAPUMP in ADB-S now supports importing directly from OCI Object Storage. 
This was implemented in DB 21c and backported to DB 19c for internal patch applied to ADB-S services (including APEX service).  Here and here are some DB 21c docs that cover it. 
I have on good authority from folks here at Oracle that this operation reads data over the network and imports in real-time. There are some internal optimizations like read-ahead caching, but it does not make an additional copy to local disk, which is nice. This approach results in simpler script (fewer lines of code – no need for DBMS_CLOUD.GET_OBJECT) and also avoids consuming the extra storage space. 
However, there are performance points to be aware of – i.e. network latencies and some overheads in object storage itself – that probably make it slower than Option A. 
It still might be a good approach for when users want the simplest possible PL/SQL script and they are importing a small data set: 

DBMS_DATAPUMP.ADD_FILE(h1, '<objectstoragenamespace>/<bucketname>/<dumpfilename>', 'MYCREDENTIAL', NULL, dbms_datapump.ku$_file_type_uridump_file);

Side note: I believe you can use the <filename>_%U.dmp syntax at the end of such URLs when the export was split across multiple files like export_01.dmp, export_02.dmp, etc. to automatically import them all
-- //end

Now that we have our database (all objects and data), let's import the Oracle APEX app.

First, we have to create the workspace. I tried to find an easy way to run my workspace sql file, but couldn't. For example in SQL Developer on the desktop, I can just run files from a URL, but in SQL Dev Web this is not available yet:

So, I went with the conventional way of importing my APEX Workspace through APEX itself.
Log in to the INTERNAL workspace and click on Manage Workspace - Import Workspace:

Select the workspace file and hit next:

Follow the wizard and select to reuse the schema we already created when we imported the database objects:

Enable the checkbox:

Finally hit the Install Workspace button:

And there we go, done:

The reason I don't create a new workspace, is because I want to take all workspace settings and users from the other system.

Log in to the workspace we just imported. Note that you log in with the ADMIN user, same as INTERNAL:

APEX recognizes it's the first time you log in and it asks to set a password in this workspace:

You can chose one and hit Apply Changes:

And that is it, we are now in our imported Workspace.

Next up, import the APEX application. We could go to App Builder and follow the import wizard.
If you have only a handful of applications, this is definitely a good way. However, if you are moving hundreds of apps to this environment you probably more want to script it.

Here's a way you could do it. I uploaded the APEX app export files also to Object Storage.
In order to use this file in APEX, we create a Pre-Authenticated Request, so basically for a specific amount of time, we can access our file without the need for a password and other credentials.

Follow the wizard and set for example the expiration of the pre-authentication request to 1 extra day:

Copy the URL:

Now, go back to your APEX workspace and click SQL Workshop > SQL Commands and use the following script:

    l_source apex_t_export_files;
    l_source := apex_t_export_files (
                  apex_t_export_file (
                    name     => 'f263.sql',
                    contents => apex_web_service.make_rest_request (
                                   p_url         => 'https://objectstorage../f263.sql',
                                   p_http_method => 'GET' )));

    apex_application_install.install(p_source => l_source );

And presto, the APEX app is installed:

Go to the App Builder, and enjoy seeing the APEX app

It turns out to be quite a long blog post to move my database and APEX app to this new environment.
There are probably more ways to do it, so feel free to comment on this blog post with an improved flow.

I also expect in the future it becomes easier. One of the focus points of Oracle APEX 21.1 and further is to make the integration with other Oracle Cloud services easier. If for example Object Storage was known by APEX_APPLICATION_INSTALL or other we would have fewer steps. 

That's it for now, next up, configure printing and exporting.

Update 30-APR-2021
Todd Bottger sent me a few commands which I incorporated in the blog post. Thank you, Todd!

Monday, January 18, 2021

Setup and configure the APEX Application Development Service (including email) in the Oracle Cloud

This post is part of the series My spin on the new Oracle APEX Application Development Service.

In this post, we will set up everything you need to build an Oracle APEX application that is able to also send emails.

I expect you already have an Oracle Cloud account. If not, it's easy to sign up for one by following the wizards. This post starts when you enter the Oracle Cloud Getting Started page.

Click the menu icon on the top left, select APEX Application Development, and click on APEX Instances:

Click the Create APEX Service button and fill out the details.

The database name can only be 14 characters and at the moment you can only choose a 19c database.
Behind the APEX Service is an Autonomous Oracle Database, optimized for APEX. 

I love this APEX Service (and in general the Autonomous Oracle Database) because it can auto-scale. We select 1 OCPU and 1TB of storage, but with Autoscaling it can go up to 3 OCPUs depending on the load. This is a major feature as in almost all the projects I'm involved in, you need, from time to time, just a little extra power (e.g. end-of-month calculations or heavy traffic to your app after an event). In my World Cup Football betting app, for example, every time a game was finished I had a huge spike in visitors as people wanted to know their scores and rank. And the cool thing is that it doesn't require downtime and happens automatically! Note that when it effectively auto-scales you pay for the extra OCPU and potential extra storage, but only for the time it auto-scaled.

Furthermore, define the password for the ADMIN user, which is needed to login to SQL Developer Web and Oracle APEX. And finally, define the network access. As I want the Oracle APEX apps accessible from anywhere in the world, I chose "Allow secure access from everywhere". Note that you can always change the access and define access control rules later.

Hit the Create APEX Service and the magic will start!

A few minutes later the APEX Instance is ready to be used. Behind the scenes, there's an Oracle Database, APEX (20.2 at the time of writing), and ORDS (20.3 at the time of writing) fully configured.

We can now access APEX by clicking on the "Launch APEX" button and create REST services and get into the Oracle database by clicking the "Launch SQL Developer Web" button.

But before we build an Oracle APEX app, we need to do one extra thing: configure the Oracle Cloud and APEX to allow to send emails. It's a two-step process: create SMTP credentials and enter the email addresses from which emails are allowed to be sent.

To get the SMTP credentials, go to Identity > Users and click on a user

In the details of the user, click the link SMTP Credentials

Click the Generate SMTP Credentials:

Enter a description and click the Generate SMTP Credentials button:

A username and password are created. Make sure to copy both:

Next, we will add the email addresses from which emails can be sent.

Go to Email Delivery and click on Email Approved Senders and hit the Create Approved Sender button.

Enter the Email Address and hit the Create Approved Sender button.

Repeat the same for other email addresses you want to send from.

With United Codes we own both domains: and, so I enabled both my email addresses. 

Click the Email Configuration and copy the Public Endpoint (

Finally, we will configure the Oracle APEX instance with the SMTP credentials.

Head back to the APEX Instance Details

Click the Launch SQL Developer Web button and login with ADMIN and the password which was defined during the creation of the service

The first time you open SQL Developer Web, there's a nice guided tour that explains the functionality in SQL Developer Web. (Note: in case you are interested in a Guided Tour for your own Oracle APEX app, have a look at Plug-ins Pro, we've built a Guided Tour APEX Plug-in which makes it very easy to provide your users with a nice interactive guide.)

Finally, we arrive at a SQL Worksheet, in which you can type any SQL or PL/SQL statement:

By using the APEX_INSTANCE_ADMIN package we can define the SMTP configuration:

set define off


Click the green arrow with the paper, which runs the commands as a script:

That's it, now we are ready to send emails from our APEX instance.

Before we login into APEX, I looked a bit more around in SQL Developer Web. For example, I saw that the previous versions of Oracle APEX are still there:

Trying to delete the older versions or some objects gave me insufficient privileges. This is good, as it means you can't accidentally do something bad:

There are also some rules to follow, for example when I wanted to create a new Oracle database user, it has to fulfill some rules. It took me a bit to figure out which ones:

Anyway, I really like SQL Developer Web. It has many great features and gives you access to your database by just using a browser.

So now, let's get started with APEX.  From the APEX Instance Details click the Launch APEX button.

The first time we try to login into APEX, we need to provide the password we defined during the creation of the service. Hit Sign in to Administration:

We get a nice welcome message and it asks us to create a new Workspace. Hit the Create Workspace button:

Define a new database user, a password, and a workspace name and hit the Create Workspace button:

A few seconds later the workspace is created and we can log in to that Workspace to create our first Oracle APEX application. Click the workspace name link:

Enter the workspace name, the username (which is the database user), and the password and hit the Sign In button:

And here we are in Oracle APEX. Now we are ready to build APEX applications. 

To test if the sending of emails work, head over to SQL Workshop > SQL Commands and enter the following code:

        p_to       => 'xxx',
        p_from     => 'xxx',
        p_body     => 'Testing email from Oracle APEX Cloud service',
        p_subj     => 'APEX_MAIL Package - Plain Text message');

It should run fine:

Check APEX_MAIL_LOG to see if the email was effectively sent:

In case you don't see an entry, it probably means the email is hanging in the mail queue. Check the APEX_MAIL_QUEUE for possible errors:

The errors that I've come across are the following:

  • ORA-29278: SMTP transient error: 421 Service not available
  • ORA-29279: SMTP permanent error: 535 Authorization failed: Envelope From address <...> not authorized

The first error most likely means the SMTP credentials are not entered correctly (see SMTP credentials).
The second error most likely means that the email from the address is not allowed to send emails (see Email Delivery).

Before I finish this blog post I want to highlight that from the APEX Service, you can also see the details of the Autonomous Oracle Database that was created behind the scenes.

When you are in the APEX Instance Details, click on the link of the Database Name.

We will now get the details of the Autonomous Database

In case you want to stop the APEX instance or terminate it, you have to go to the database to do this. See the More Actions button. Also when you want to manually Scale Up or Down, you do it from this database screen and not the APEX instance screen. As some might search for it, I thought to point it out in this post. In my series where we set up an Always Free Oracle Cloud, we get a free Oracle Autonomous Database with APEX and SQL Developer Web too, so you might wonder, what is the difference with setting up an APEX instance? The components look identical, but I did notice one difference, the workload type is now called APEX instead of, for example, Transaction Processing:

But regardless of the workload type, you will see all the Autonomous Databases also in the APEX Instances screen:

When clicking on an APEX instance name, you see metrics of the APEX instance:

Now, you could also set up the APEX instance through the Autonomous Database wizard and select the APEX workload type:

The difference is that when you follow the APEX Application Development, settings are pre-set or hidden, so it's a more seamless experience. But I hope that in the future when you select to use this new wizard, the wizard will also guide you to set up the email delivery and SMTP credentials automatically, so all those steps are done for you. Object Storage would be another good candidate to set up automatically, for example, create a bucket with the same name as the APEX instance. This would also differentiate it more from using the Create Autonomous Database wizard.

That's it for now... next up, I will import an existing database (schema) and Oracle APEX app into the environment we just created.